|1531||The Catholics defeat the Protestants at Kappel during Switzerland's second civil war.|
|1540||Charles V of Milan puts his son Philip in control.|
||George II of England crowned.
||In graditude for putting down a rebellion in the
streets of Paris, France's National Convention appoints Napoleon Bonaparte second
in command of the Army of the Interior.
||The Confederate Congress in Richmond passes a draft
law allowing anyone owning 20 or more slaves to be exempt from military service.
This law confirms many southerners opinion that they are in a 'rich man's war
and a poor man's fight.'
|1877||Outlaw Wild Bill Longley, who killed at least a dozen men, is hanged, but it took two tries; on the first try, the rope slipped and his knees drug the ground.|
|1899||South African Boers, settler from the Netherlands, declare war on Great Britain.|
|1906||San Francisco school board orders the segregation of Oriental schoolchildren, inciting Japanese outrage.|
||Despite international protests, Edith Cavell, an
English nurse in Belgium, is executed by Germans for aiding the escape of Allied
||In the Battle of Cape Esperance, near the Solomon
Islands, U.S. cruisers and destroyers decisively defeat a Japanese task force
in a night surface encounter.
|1945||Negotiations between Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and Communist leader Mao Tse-tung break down. Nationalist and Communist troops are soon engaged in a civil war.|
|1950||The Federal Communications Commission authorizes the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) to begin commercial color TV broadcasts.|
|1962||Pope John XXIII opens the 21st Ecumenical Council (Vatican II) with a call for Christian unity. This is the largest gathering of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in history; among delegate-observers are representatives of major Protestant denominations, in itself a sign of sweeping change.|
||Apollo 7, with three men aboard, is successfully
launched from Cape Kennedy.
||A French mission in Vietnam is destroyed by a U.S.
|1976||The so-called "Gang of Four," Chairman Mao Tse-tung's widow and three associates, are arrested in Peking, setting in motion an extended period of turmoil in the Chinese Communist Party.|
|1991||Confirmation hearings for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas begin.|