|1540||The Society of Jesus, a religious order under Ignatius Loyola, is approved by the Pope.|
|1669||The island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea falls to the Ottoman Turks after a 21-year siege.|
|1791||Jews in France are granted French citizenship.|
||Confederate guerrilla Bloody Bill Anderson and his
henchmen, including a teenage Jesse James, massacre 20 unarmed Union soldiers
at Centralia, Missouri. The event becomes known as the Centralia Massacre.
||Wild Bill Hickok, sheriff of Hays City, Kan., shoots
down Samuel Strawhim, a drunken teamster causing trouble.
||Constance of Greece declares war on Bulgaria.
||President Woodrow Wilson opens his fourth Liberty
Loan campaign to support men and machines for World War I.
|1920||Eight Chicago White Sox players are charged with fixing the 1919 World Series.|
||Germany occupies Warsaw as Poland falls to Germany
and the Soviet Union.
||Australian forces defeat the Japanese on New Guinea
in the South Pacific.
|1944||Thousands of British troops are killed as German forces rebuff their massive effort to capture the Arnhem Bridge across the Rhine River in Holland.|
||U.S. Army and Marine troops liberate Seoul, South
||The U.S. Air Force Bell X-2, the world's fastest
and highest-flying plane, crashes, killing the test pilot.
|1964||The Warren Commission, investigating the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, issues its report, stating its conclusion that Lee Harvey Oswald was the sole gunman.|