|786||Pepin the Short of Gaul dies. His dominions are divided between his sons Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman.|
|1525||In the first of the Franco-Habsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captures the French king Francis I at the Battle of Pavia, Italy.|
|1538||Ferdinand of Hapsburg and John Zapolyai, the two kings of Hungary, conclude the peace of Grosswardein.|
|1803||Chief Justice John Marshall, by refusing to rule on the case of Marbury vs. Madison, asserts the authority of the judicial branch.|
|1813||Off Guiana, the American sloop Hornet sinks the British sloop Peacock.|
|1821||Mexico gains independence from Spain.|
||Some 3,000 Mexicans launch an assault on the
Alamo, with its 182 Texan defenders.
|1868||The U.S. House of Representatives votes to impeach President Andrew Johnson.|
|1895||The Cuban War of Independence begins.|
|1908||Japan officially agrees to restrict emigration to the U.S.|
|1912||Italy bombs Beirut in the first act of war against the Ottoman Empire.|
|1912||The Jewish organization Hadassah is founded in New York City.|
||Civil War soldier Joshua Chamberlain dies.
|1916||A film version of Jules Verne's 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea opens in New York.|
|1921||Herbert Hoover becomes Secretary of Commerce. |
|1928||The New Gallery of New York exhibits works of Archibald Motley, its first show to feature a black artist.|
||Merrill's Marauders, a specially trained group
of American soldiers, begin their ground campaign against Japan into Burma.
||U.S. forces liberate prisoners of war in the
Los Baños Prison in the Philippines.
|1947||Franz von Papen is sentenced to eight years in a labor camp for war crimes. |
||The French evacuate Hoa Binh in Vietnam in order
to mass for the Tonkin Delta drive.
|1959||Khrushchev rejects the Western plan for the Big Four meeting on Germany.|
||North Vietnamese troops capture the imperial
palace in Hue, South Vietnam.
|1972||Hanoi negotiators walks out of the peace talks in Paris to protest U.S. air raids on North Vietnam.|
||General Norman Schwarzkopf, commander of the
coalition army, sends in ground forces during the Gulf War.